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It is bounded to the northwest by Algeria and to the north by Libya, to the east by Chad, to the south by Nigeria, to the southwest by Benin and Guinea, and to the west by Mali.

Almost two thirds of its surface is covered by the Sahara Desert and the rest, in the south, is covered by savannahs and tropical rainforests. The highest peak is the Idoukal-en-Taghes at 2,022 meters above sea level, in the Bagzane Mountains, which are part of the Aïr volcanic massif. The main river is the Niger and it shares Lake Chad with the country of the same name. The Nigerian climate is one of the warmest in the world, with an average temperature of 30º C. The Hausa is the predominant ethnic group in the country, accounting for 50% of the total population, and only 22% of the population lives in urban areas.

The economy is based on agriculture, livestock breeding and the export of uranium.

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