In the XIX century, the term convention was mainly used for bilateral (between two countries) agreements. However, currently, this word is generally used for non-profit multilateral treaties and are negotiated with sponsors or the backing of a international organization.
Our country has signed several conventions regarding the environment. A few of the main ones are:
– Convention of Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the Americas: it was signed on October 12th, 1940, in Washington (U.S.A.) and ratified by Chile in 1967. The main objectives of the agreement were to prevent the extinction of plant and animal species in America and preserve the areas of extraordinary beauty, especially geologic formations or areas that have aesthetic, historical or scientific value.
– Convention of Antarctic Seal Conservation: it was signed in the United Kingdom on June 1st, 1972 and ratified by our country in 1980. It established promoting the protection, scientific study and rational use of Antarctic seals and maintaining a balanced Antarctic ecosystem.
– Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES): it was signed in Washington (U.S.A.) on March 3rd, 1973, and was incorporated into Chilean legislation in 1975.
This agreement established the prohibition and restriction of trading in animals and their byproducts, as well as the body parts of some species that were considered Endangered or Vulnerable.
– Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources: it was signed in Canberra (Australia) on September 11th, 1980 and was ratified by our country in 1981. Its main objectives are safeguarding the environment and protecting the integrity of the ecosystem formed by the seas surrounding Antarctica and conserving it marine resources.
– United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: it was signed in Montego Bay (Jamaica) on December 10th, 1982 and was incorporated into our legal system in 1997. It establishes a new judicial framework that facilitates communication in seas in oceans. It promotes a peaceful use of these waters and a balanced and efficient use of its resources.
– United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: it was signed on May 9th, 1992, in New York (U.S.A.) and ratified by Chile in 1995. This agreement was meant to stabilize the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
– United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD): it was signed in Paris (France) on June 17th, 1994, and was incorporated into Chile’s legal system in 1997. It establishes all out combat against desertification and mitigating the effects brought on by drought in countries affected by the situation, especially in the African continent.
– Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: it was signed on February 2nd, 1971 in Ramsar. Its main objectives are setting the parameters for the protection and sustainable use of wetlands and their resources.
– Washington Convention: signed on Otober 12th, 1940, in Washington (United States), the objective of this agreement is to contribute to the protection of America’s flora, fauna and natural zones.
– Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): it was signed on June 5th, 1992, in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and was ratified by our country in 1994. It established the conservation of the world’s endemic biodiversity.
– Convention on Migratory Species (CMS): it was signed in Bonn (Germany) on July 23rd, 1979 and was incorporated in our countries legal system in 1981. This agreement contemplates the promotion of worldwide conservation of migratory species.
– Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer: it was signed on March 22nd, 1985, in Vienna (Austria) and was ratified by our country in 1989. Its main objective is protecting human health and the environment from the negative effects brought on by the destruction of the ozone layer.
– Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and their Disposal: it was signed in Basel (Switzerland) on March 22nd, 1989 and was incorporated into Chile’s legal system in 1992. It establishes that all participating countries have the right to forbid the import of hazardous waste and they are obliged to abolish exports to places where imports are restricted.
Agreements have the same interpretation as conventions, meaning, they are agreements in which several parties participate and are negotiated or approved by an international organization.
The most important environmental agreements signed by Chile are:
– International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling: this agreement contemplates the protection of all species of whale; protection from overexploitation and it establishes an international system that regulates whaling.
– Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Zones of the Southeast Pacific: it was signed on November 12th, 1981, in Lima and was incorporated into Chile’s legal system in 1986. Its main objectives are protecting the marine environment and the coastal zones of the southeast Pacific in the 200 miles that fall under the jurisdiction of the committed parties and beyond this area as well.
– Rotterdam Convention: it was signed on September 10th, 1998. It established a shared responsibility and joint efforts when it comes to the international trading of certain pesticides and hazardous chemical compounds in order to protect human beings and the environment.
– Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants: it was signed it Stockholm (Sweden) on May 23rd, 2001. Its main objective is protecting human health and the environments from persistent organic pollutants (POP’s), like toxaphene and heptachlor, among others.
– Convention on the Conservation of Wildlife Species: it established the protection of wild species that migrate between countries’ borders.
– Convention for the Protection and Sustainable Handling of the Vicuña: it was signed in Lima on December 20th, 1979 and incorporated into our legal system in 1981. This agreement contemplates a continued promotion of the conservation and management of this species and a prohibition towards hunting it and illegal trade.
Chile has signed agreements with several countries in this area:
– North America
. Chile signed the Convention on Cultural Exchange and Cooperation with Canada on February 6th, 1999.
. Chile signed the Convention for Educational and Cultural Cooperation with Mexico on October 2nd, 1990.
– Central America
. Chile signed the General Convention for Economic, Commercial, Scientific, Technical, Social, Tourism and Cultural Cooperation with Costa Rica on September 24th, 1985.
. Chile signed the Cultural Convention with Guatemala on October 28th, 1981.
. Chile signed the Cultural Convention with the Dominican Republic on July 17th, 1981.
– South America
. The Convention for Cultural Cooperation was signed with Argentina on April 10th, 1975.
. The Convention for Cultural and Scientific Cooperation was signed with Brazil on December 23rd, 1976.
. The Convention for Cultural Cooperation was signed with Colombia on December 17th, 1982.
. The Convention for Cultural Exchange was signed with Paraguay on December 17th, 1982.
. The Convention for Cultural Exchange was signed with Peru on May 5th, 1978.
. The Cultural Convention was signed with Uruguay on July 26th, 1968.
. The Basic Convention for Cultural Integration was signed with Venezuela on October 10th, 1990.
. A Cultural Convention was signed with Germany on November 20th, 1956.
. A Cultural Convention was signed with France on November 23rd, 1955
. A Cultural Convention was signed with Russia on June 3rd, 1993.
. The Convention for Cultural, Educational and Scientific Cooperation was signed with Hungary on April 26th, 1995.
. A Cultural Convention was signed with the United Kingdom on November 13th, 1968.
. A Cultural Convention was signed with China on June 17th, 1987.
. A Cultural Convention was signed with South Korea on December 7th, 1983.
. The Convention on Cultural Exchange was signed with Israel on April 25th, 1953.
. The Basic Convention on Economic, Technical and Cultural Cooperation was signed with Jordan on March 11th, 1981.
. The Basic Convention on Culture was signed with Syria on February 15th, 1990.
. A Cultural Convention was signed with Egypt on April 27th, 1960.
. A Cultural Convention was signed with Tunisia on June 18th, 1968.