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Its territory can be divided into four geological areas. The Highveld, with an average altitude of 1,300 meters above sea level, lies to the west and is the continuation of the Drakensberg Mountains in South Africa.

The Middle Veld rises towards the east, a region of valleys and hills that reach up to 750 meters above sea level. It is followed by the Lowveld, with an average altitude of 200 meters above sea level. Finally the Lebombo Mountains lie in the east of the country, and have an altitude of 600 meters above sea level.

 The most important rivers are the Komati, Mbuluzane, Lusutfu and Ngwavuna rivers. The climate varies depending on the area and ranges from temperate to tropical and to arid subtropical. The main ethnic groups are the Bantu and the Zulu. The country’s economy is dependent on South Africa, with agriculture almost at subsistence level, a barely developed industrial sector, but with an outstanding tourism industry.

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