The Vienna Convention (1969) established that the term international agreement refers to agreements considered less formal and are concerned with a limited set of issues, such as economic, cultural, scientific or technical cooperation.
Besides FTA’s, Chile has signed a series of trade agreements that increase countries’ possibilities of development. Among these agreements one may find:
– Economic Association Agreements (EAA): they are associated to a large number of countries. Chile has to signed agreements with:
. The European Union (EU): it was signed in May of 2002 within the framework of the opening day of the II European Union-Latin American and the Carribean Summit in Madrid. It established an in depth dialogue regarding mutual interest bilateral and international matters and an intensification of cooperation in issues relating to economics, science, technology and culture.
. P4 (New Zealand, Brunei, Darussalam and Singapore): it was signed on July 18th, 2005 in Wellington (New Zealand). This agreement is based on the creation of an economic association that goes beyond strictly commercial terms, for it also included a convention on labor and environmental cooperation.
– Economic Complementary Agreements (ECA): they are bilateral conventions that have the objective of stimulating the economies of the countries brought together by the agreement and actively promoting their participation in the world economy. Our country has subscribed seven conventions with the following countries:
. Argentina: it was signed in August of 1991 and its objective is facilitating, expanding and diversifying commercial exchange between both countries; in addition, it promotes investments and eases common interest projects in industry, infrastructure, energy, mining and tourism, among other sectors.
. Venezuela: it was signed on April 2nd, 1993 and it established the conformation of an expanded economic zone between both parties that allows the free circulation of goods and services. It also contemplates the coordination and complementation of activities, especially in the industrial and service areas.
. Bolivia: signed on April 6th, 1993, its main objective is to expedite, expand and diversify commercial exchange and promote investments and productive activities in both countries.
. Colombia: it was signed in Santiago on December 6th, 1993 and its main objectives are promoting a balanced economic development between both nations; stimulating the expansion and diversification of trade and increasing investment.
. Ecuador: it was signed on December 20th, 1994 and it established an expanded economic space between both countries that would allow the free circulation of goods and services. In addition, it established tax levies and the elimination of import restrictions.
. Mercosur: signed on June 25th, 1996, it defined the creation of a free trade zone between both parties in a period of 10 years.
It also encouraged the promotion of investment and development and the use of a physical infrastructure, placing special emphasis on establishing bioceanic interconnections (they spread from one ocean to another).
. Peru: it was signed on June 22nd, 1998 and its main objectives are intensifying economic and trade relations between both countries and promoting investments.
Their objective is to collaborate in specific matters and a mutual exchange of projects and research, among other things. Chile has signed the following agreements of this kind:
– Cooperation Agreement for Catastrophes: on August 8th, 1997, our country signed this agreement with Argentina. A few of its main objectives are:
. An exchange of information aimed at preventing catastrophes and their effects.
. An exchange of information and experiences relating to actions to be taken in case of a catastrophe.
. An exchange of information in matters of technology that can be applied to actions to be taken in case of a catastrophe.
. The design and elaboration of joint contingency programs, projects and plans in case of a catastrophe.
. Joint planning of mitigation and operative coordination before risk hypotheses.
. Mutual collaboration in actions brought on by catastrophes through the employment of personnel and elements; the use of technical and logistical support and the supply of food, medicine and other elements necessary to mitigate the damages caused by a catastrophe.
– Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement: Chile signed this agreement with India on April 21st, 2008, which allows the definition of collaboration areas in matters relating to research and development and innovation between both countries. They are to be accomplished through visits and exchanges of experts; the organization of seminars and workshops in different scientific and technological areas; the exchange of information and documentation and other forms of scientific and technological cooperation that can be mutually accorded.
– Energy and Technological Innovation Agreement: Chile and Canada signed this convention on June 9th, 2008.
Both countries will create a mixed commission to develop joint projects in these matters.
Also, when it comes to innovation, work will be performed around 15 projects associated to different areas, such as mining, metallurgy, forestry and agriculture.
– Agreements with France: on June 23rd, 2008, Chile signed two Agreements for University Cooperation in Agriculture and Civil Engineering. The first convention agreed the creation of a student exchange program for pre-graduate agriculture students for a one or two semesters, as well as for research teachers. It also dealt with the organization of seminars and meetings related to this subject. The second agreement contemplates the creation a new exchange program for students and academics in the area of civil engineering.
– Scientific and Technological Cooperation Agreement: Chile and the EU signed this agreement on September 23rd, 2002. Its implementation and execution was under the charge of the National Scientific and Technological Research Commission (Conicyt). Its objectives were to ease the mobility and exchange of scientists between both parties; benefit technological transparency; associate research centers to resolve mutual interest issues together; stimulate innovation processes and reinforce scientific and technological capacity.
– Defense Cooperation Agreements: Chile and Bolivia signed this agreement on June 16th, 2008, which established the exchange of defense information; the supply of knowledge and experience in peace operations and the cooperation between the military industries of both nations and the opening of permanent channels of communication.
– Agreement for Cooperation in Energy, Environmental Management and Tourism: on July 5th, 2007, Chile and El Salvador signed this agreement, which aimed to provide incentives and optimize investments in the energy sector; share and exchange experiences in matters concerning environmental management and promote economic development and cultural exchange in tourism.
– Cooperation Fishing Agreement between Chile and New Zealand: these two countries signed an agreement on March 17th, 2006, that intended to establish a cooperation relationship in regard to the sustainable use of fishing resources and the development of aquiculture. It also promotes the exchange of information between both parties regarding fishing and aquiculture policy, and it also referred to monitoring, control and surveillance in the high seas as well as in jurisdictional waters to fight illegal fishing.
Our country has signed three international agreements concerning the environment:
– Agreement regarding regional Cooperation in the Fight against Pollution caused by Hydrocarbons and other hazardous substances in the southeast Pacific: it was signed by Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Peru in Lima on November 12th, 1981, and one of its objectives is to neutralize and control the harmful effects of cases considered serious or imminently dangerous for the marine environment. Also, the committed parties will make efforts to promote and establish programs that fight marine pollution caused by hydrocarbons and other hazardous substances. Surveillance activities will also be carried out individually, bilaterally or multilaterally that cover the southeast Pacific zone.
– Environmental Cooperation Agreement with Canada: it was signed on February 6th, 1997, in Ottawa. It established a strengthening of environmental cooperation between both nations; it ensures an effective execution of environmental laws and regulations and it is meant to promote transparency and public participation. Through the instruments and mechanisms contained in this agreement, citizens and organizations can make petitions if they consider that their governments have not been applying environmental legislation in an effective manner. These petitions are evaluated by an independent committee.
– Environmental Cooperation Agreement with the United States: it was signed on June 17th, 2003 and it set the framework to be used in the cooperation of both parties for the promotion of environmental preservation and protection and in the prevention of pollution and the degradation of natural resources and ecosystems.
Chile has signed five collaboration agreements ion this field:
– With Argentina: the Cinematographic Co-production Agreement was signed on December 16th, 1994 (in Buenos Aires).
– With Brazil: the Cinematographic Complementary Cooperation Agreement was signed on March 25th, 1996.
– With Venezuela: The Cinematographic Co-production Complementary Agreement was signed in Santiago on April 2nd, 1993.
– With Canada: the Cinematographic Co-production Agreement was signed on September 2nd, 1994 (in Santiago).
– With France: the Cinematographic Co-production Agreement was signed in Santiago on November 30th, 1990.