The signing of commercial treaties and the cooperation (issue that will be examined profoundly in the next chapter) was the initial kick for inserting the nation in the international community. Actually, globalization has fixed new challenges for our country. One of the priorities is to strengthen the relationship with Latin-American, as well as to supervise the correct functioning of the already signed out commercial treaties, to position Chile a a commercial bridge in the Pacific Asian basin and incorporate actively Chileans living abroad in the countries affairs.
Also and lately, the energetic issue has been crucial to face our relation with other States, mainly with the neighboring countries. Chile is obliged to subscribe treaties with the purveyors and traders of fuels, as well, Chile has set as an objective, during the last years, to establish cooperative treaties with countries that were in similar situation and that through the energetic diversification ans search for alternative resources, could overcome the problem.
Chile also endorses peace, security and social developments international actions. Being member of international organizations, such as The United Nations Organization (UN) or The Organization of The American States (OAS), has developed projects such as peace missions or the international observation of voting processes with the finality to preserve democracy and promote the respect of the human rights.
The diplomatic missions are of the most relevant importance in the relationships established by our country with foreign countries, among which we distinguish embassies and consulates.
Embassies correspond to representations of the government of a country on front of the government of another country, been used as a communication media between both. Its maximum representative is the Ambassador, who is desi8gned by the president of the republic and corresponds to a public functionary of his outmost reliability, as he must take care of political, economical, financial and cultural matters.
The Consulates, meantime, are administrative offices of a country abroad, that allow the carrying out of different managements (legalization of documents, certificate delivery, etc.) as if in the original country. The Consul acts as a public notary, giving faith of the authenticity of the documents emitted information.
Besides, our country has two permanent diplomatically missions in the ONU, in the OEA, both with their headquarters central offices in the United States.
Accordi9ngly with the article 4, Chapter 2 of the United Nations Carte, can be members of this organization «all the other peace lovers States that may accept the obligations consigned in the Carte and that, accordingly with the organization standards are qualified to comply with such functions and be willing to do so»
On July, the 24th. 1945, our country entered as a permanent member of this organization, being one of the 51 founding States. During these years, Chile has integrated the six working commissions that constitute this organization: Disarmament and International Security, Economical and Financial Matters, Social Affairs, Humanitarian and Cultural, Special Politics and Decolonization, Administrative and Budget Affairs and Juridical Matters. Besides, our country has also been member in several occasions of the Economical and Social Council, the Security Council and the human Rights Comission of the United Nations, among other occasions of debating and decisions possessed by this entity.
Actually, the permanent representative of Chile for the United Nations, with the category of extraordinary and plenipotentiary ambassador is Heraldo Muñoz. The Mission of Chile in this organization is also conformed by near 14 persons, among assistants, secretaries, counselors and other professionals.
Our country, as a member of the United nations, has participated in different peace missions. Their objective is to maintain the global stability, give humanitarian support to the needy and ratify the foreign policy of our country based on cooperation and conservation of the common wellbeing.
The Chilean Navy, as well as the Army, the Air Force, Policemen and including Investigation Officers, has participated in:
– United Nations Observation Mission for India and Pakistan: since 1949 national military soldiers are in the area to supervise the cease of fire in the Cachemire zone The United Nations Transitional Authority in Camboya (UNTAC): military operation carried out between the years 1992 and 1993.
In this action, our country collaborated with the presence of 53 soldiers, whom integrated a multinational force of 15.000 men.
All of them had to protect the normal development of democratic elections in the Asiatic country, which for 20 years presented a governability problem. The Chilean unit was designated to a base in Phnom Pehn, where it was necessary to disarm and demobilize the bands that still were producing perturbations in the region. Among the tasks performed by the national effectives were the river patrolling and the weaponry controlling and the mined zones.
Military Observer Mission Ecuador-Peru (MOMEP): between 1995 and 1999 our country participated in the operations of peace maintenance between these two countries, confronted by boundary problems in El Condor Ranges. The Chilean effectives carried out, with other militaries of guaranteeing countries the Treaty Peace among which were Argentina, Brazil and the United States, aerial and terrestrial surveillance, Its objective was to ensure the non existence or warfare military operations in the conflict zone, as well as to verify that the amount of weaponry and Peruvian and Ecuatorian troops would not exceed the maximum allowed.
– United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyrus (UNFIcYP): a mission of peace which main objective was to verify the respect to the truce accorded in the conflict zone among the Turk Cypriots and Greek Cypriot troops. Developed since 2001, during the first years our country had to augment the effectives present in the zone, from one to 16. Nevertheless, after the reduction of troops in the zone, there are only seven Navy effectives.
– United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNSTO): the Chilean Navy has participated in this mission since 1967 until 1992. Actually, there is an effective as observatory in the zone, in the frontier of Israel with Lebanon and Syria.
– United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), as off 2003 there are some Chilean militaries in the conflict zone between Bosnia and Herzegovina.
– United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH): corresponds to the most important mission of peace in which Chile has participated in the last years.
It began on June, 2004 and is integrated by effectives of the Navy, the Army, the Air Force, the Policemen and Investigations, which add up, totally, to 557 men. Their main task is to give security to the process of stabilization of the Caribbean country.
Chile was one of the 21 countries that, in 1948, in the city of Bogota, gave birth to the Organization of the American States (OAS). This is the principal instance of debate for the continent and, among its objectives is the strengthening of relations among the member countries, the fostering of peace, the consolidation of democracy, the promotion of the human rights and of sustained social and economical development.
Its origins date back to the first decades of the XIX century, when Simon Bolivar proposed the idea of creating an association of American states. In 1948, with the ratification of the Charter of Organization of American States and the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, the organization as we know it today was created, setting up its headquarters in the city of Washington.
Currently, it is made up by 35 countries, including Cuba, despite the fact that, since 1962, this country is suspended, because its government communist regime was considered incompatible with the direction of the organization.
As of May 25th, 2005, Chilean Jose Miguel Insulza was elected secretary general by the organization’s member countries. As the maximum authority, one of his main achievements has been restructuring the General Secretary’s organization chart in order to make management more effective. This way, he created the sub secretaries of public affairs, multidimensional security, administration and finance and the department of international legal affairs.