There are two upper limbs and each of them has a total of 64 bones, divided into five segments from their roots to their ends: shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist and hand.
The shoulder, or pectoral girdle, has two bones. A long bone called the clavicle (from Latin meaning «small key» because it looks like a music note), is located between the sternum and scapula. The latter is the other bone of the shoulder, located in the back part of the thorax.
The arm only has one long bone, the humerus. It is joined at the top with the shoulder and at bottom with the forearm to form the elbow joint. The forearm is made up by the cubitus (or ulna) and radius, two long bones running parallel down the arm.
The wrist is where the flexibility of the hand begins, eight carpus (or carpal) bones in four columns.
After the wrist comes the metacarpus (or metacarpal) bones which fan out into the hand.
Finally, there are the 14 bones called the phalanges, three in the fingers and two in the thumb.
These are two lower limbs with 62 bones each divided into the hip girdle (pelvis), femur or thigh bone, leg bone and foot.
The pelvis is made up of the coxal bones (ilium, ischium and pubis), the sacrum and the coccyx.
The thigh or femur is the longest and most resistant bone in the human body. The leg bones, the tibia and the fibula, extend from the knee to the ankle. The first is the bigger of the two and joints at the top with the femur and the fibula and at the bottom with the talus bone of the tarsal and the fibula.
The fibula (from Latin meaning pin) or calf bone is located behind the tibia and helps distribute the weight.
Bones of the foot
The foot is made up of three types of bones: tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges.
The tarsus is a cluster of bones that connect the leg to the metatarsus and is made up of the astragalus or talus (in the ankle), the calcaneus, the biggest bone of the foot making up the heel. Then there are five bones: the cuboids, scaphoids and the three cuneiforms.
There are five metatarsal or metatarsus bones in each foot and they extend from the tarsus to the toes or digits of the foot. Finally, we get to the phalanges, making up the toes, which conform 14 long bones in each foot. They are distributed into groups of three per toe, except for the big toe or hallux (where there are only two phalanges).